Combined Presentations

The previously described manifestations can all appear in isolation, but combinations of symptoms are very common, particularly the constellation of symptoms described as constituting the mild DCS syndrome. Such combinations can be useful in helping to formulate the diagnosis. For example, whereas an isolated monoarthropathy after diving always raises suspicion of an alternative diagnosis such as a muscular strain, a monoarthropathy combined with patchy paraesthesiae and an erythematous rash would be a much more convincing basis for the diagnosis of DCS. Other common combinations include mild symptoms and any of the other forms of DCS, pulmonary DCS and spinal DCS, and cutis marmorata and spinal DCS.